THE CONCEPT OF MUHAMMADIYAH’S EDUCATIONAL REFORM
Muhammadiyah is socioreligious organization in Indonesia, established by KH Ahmad Dahlan in 1912, which aimed at adapting Islām to modern Indonesian life. KH Ahmad Dahlan is not only the founder of Muhammadiyah but also a reformer (mujaddid) in education field of Muhammadiyah. One of educational reform of KH Ahmad Dahlan is the concept of integral education. He considers that the religious sciences and general sciences are united in Islamic science. KH Ahmad Dahlan, with his Muhammadiyah, attempted to do the reconstruction and renewal of tajdid meaning . The meaning of tajdid include (1) purification, which is intended to maintain Islamic teachings based on the Qur'an and Sunnah; (2) improvement, development, modernization and the like. While the purpose of Muhammadiyah’s tajdid is to functionlize Islam as a religion of rahmatan lil alamiin, as well as guidance, hudan for society to reach a better and useful life based on the Qur'an and Sunnah. Moreover, the dimensions of Muhammadiyah’s tajdid are (1) Purification of faith and worship, as well as the formation of noble characters (al-akhla q al-karimah); (2) Development of dynamic, creative, progressive, and futuristic attitudes; (3) Development of organizational leadership and work ethos in the organization of Muhammadiyah. Furthermore, education reform of Muhammadiyah was carried out at least in three areas, namely: (1) the renewal of the curriculum; (2) the renewal of teaching methods; and (3) the renewal of institution. Through the development of the education system, Muhammadiyah successfully established scientific and educational institution paradigms that are integrated and equitable access to education for all people, regardless of social status and gender.