Citing References in the Text

Whenever citing a reference in the text source, it is made with its author’s surname and the year of publication is to be inserted in the text. Choose from the listed below to see examples:

      • Citing the author in the text

      • Using direct quotes

      • Citing works by more than one author

      • Citing works by three or more authors

      • Citing a chapter of section

      • Citing an organization

     • Citing works by the same author written in the same year

     • Citing secondary sources

Citing the Author in the Text

Dogs were the first animals to be domesticated (Sheldrake, 1999).

If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence the year is given in brackets.

Sheldrake (1999) asserted that dogs were the first animals to be domesticated.

Using Direct Quotes

If you quote directly from a source, you must insert the author’s name, date of publication and the page number of the quotation. The domestication of dogs, long predated the domestication of other animals (Sheldrake, 1999).

Citing works by more than one Author

If your source has two authors, you should include both names in the text.

Anderson and Poole (1998) note that a “narrow line often separates plagiarism from good scholarship.”

Citing works by three or more Authors

If there are three or more authors, you should include the first named author and then add ‘et al.’ in italics followed by a full stop. This is an abbreviation of ‘et alia’ which means ‘and others’ in Latin.

In the United States, revenue from computer games now exceeds that of movies (Kline et al., 2003).

Citing Chapter or Section

When referring to a chapter or section which is part of a larger work, you should cite the author of the chapter not the editor of the whole work.

The sea level has risen by approximately 10cm in the last 100 years (Mason, 1999)

Citing an Organization

If an organization or company (e.g., Department of Health, Arcadia Group Limited) is named as the author of a work rather than a person, you should cite their names. Make sure that you use the same version of the organizations name in both the Text and List of references (e.g., always use ‘Department of Health’, don’t abbreviate to ‘DoH’).

Spain became a member of the United Nations in 1955 (United Nations, 2000).

Citing Secondary Sources

When citing secondary sources (i.e., an author refers to a work which you have not read) cite the secondary source, but include the name of the author and date of publication of the original source in the text.

Only the secondary source should be listed in your List of references. You should only cite secondary sources if you are unable to read the original source yourself.

Sheff (1993) notes that Nintendo invested heavily in advertising (cited in Kline et al., 2003, p. 118).