LANGUAGE LEARNING AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION
Reviewing concepts of identity and ethnicity, and their applicability to Europe through language, religious and cultural criteria, the author notes that the analysis of any moves towards an integrated Europe must come to terms with both behavioural and ethnographic approaches to difference, and particularly to the contrast between dominance and difference theories. If culture is an internalised system of meanings, Europeans will require a socialisation process, and mode of expression through symbols which relate the individual to others and to himself and which thus create cultural identity, in addition to a language of basic communication—which need not be an official language. Strong selfawareness, one of Clanet’s three conditions for successful intercultural understanding, is not fully supported as relevant in two studies of cross-cultural relations. The special role of language in intercultural understanding is however stressed. The final section of the paper considers a language learning policy for Europe at two levels: that of a common language of basic communication and that of full understanding, whose aim must be to see why cultural differences exist
Anders, George. (2017). You Can Do Anything: The Surprising Power of a "Useless" Liberal Arts Education. Little, Brown and Company.
Bain, Ken. (2004). What the Best College Teachers Do. Harvard University Press
Cavenagh, Sarah Rose. (2016). The Spark of Learning: Energizing the College Classroom with the Science of Emotion. West Virginia University Press
Cotterall, S. and Hoffmann A. (1998). How to Learn Another Language. VUW Language Learning Centre.
Ellis, G. & Sinclair, B. (1989). Learning to learn English: a course in learner training. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Husni, H. (2016). The Challenges of Religious Education in Indonesia and the Future Perspectives. Religious Studies: An International Journal, 4 (2). Retrieved from https://fssh-journal.org/index.php/jrs/article/view/12
Husni, H., & Dafik, Y. (2018). Management of Islamic Higher Education in the 4.0 Industrial Revolution. Educational Review: International Journal, 15(2). Retrieved from https://fssh-journal.org/index.php/es/article/view/52
Husni, H., & Setiawan, I. (2018). Hermeneutics Paradigm in Religious Research. Religious Studies: An International Journal, 6(2). Retrieved from https://fssh-journal.org/index.php/jrs/article/view/29
Husni, H., & Tantowie, T. (2017). Religion, Modernism and Postmodernism: Study on Jean Baudrillard’s Philosophy. Religious Studies: An International Journal, 5(2). Retrieved from https://fssh-journal.org/index.php/jrs/article/view/23
Husni, Husni (2019). Moderate Muslims’ Views On Multicultural Education, Freedom Of Expression, And Social Media Hate Speech: An Empirical Study In West Java Indonesia. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Islam, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 199-224, Nov. 2019. ISSN 2621-8275. Available at:
Husni, Husni. (2019) Konsep Ihsân dalam Wacana Pendidikan Islam. TAJDID, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 1-12, june 2019. ISSN 2621-8259. Available at:
Lewis, M. (1999). How to Study Foreign Languages. Hampshire & London, UK: MacMillan. Part I: What is Involved in Learning a Language. Part II: Strategies for Language Acquisition.
Nation, I. S. P. (1989). Language Teaching Techniques. ELI Occasional Publications No. 2.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. New York, USA: Newbury House.
Oxford, R. (Ed.) (1996). Language learning strategies around the world: cross-cultural perspectives. Honolulu: Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center, University of Hawai’i at Manoa.
Rubin, J. & Thompson, I. (1994). How to be a More Successful Language Learner. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Willing, K. (1989). Teaching how to learn: learning strategies in ESL. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University