• Mc Gee Z. T Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, 70118, United States


This study uses data extracted Monitoring the Future to test the hypothesis that the effects of parental and peer influence on adolescent drug use differ significantly by social class. Using variables derived from the social control, social learning, and strain theories of delinquency, strongest support is found for the social learning perspective in that peer influence has the greatest effect on adolescent drug use and the effect of parental influence on adolescent drug use is insignificant. In addition, results show that the effect of peers on adolescent drug use is greatest among middle class adolescents. Additional support is found for social control theory in that significant class differences exist with regard to the effects of belief, commitment, religious attachment, and school attachment on adolescent drug use. Finally, results show no support for strain theory in that the effects of expected college success and expected career success on adolescent drug use are insignificant. Implications for integrating the recent work in stratification with the present literature on delinquency are discussed in an effort to provide a more precise explanation of the class‐delinquency relationship


Ambrose, S.A., Bridges, M.W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M.C., Norman, M.K., & Mayer, R.E.. (2010). How Learning Works. Jossey-Bass
Anders, George. (2017). You Can Do Anything: The Surprising Power of a "Useless" Liberal Arts Education. Little, Brown and Company.
Bain, Ken. (2004). What the Best College Teachers Do. Harvard University Press
Cavenagh, Sarah Rose. (2016). The Spark of Learning: Energizing the College Classroom with the Science of Emotion. West Virginia University Press
Cotterall, S. and Hoffmann A. (1998). How to Learn Another Language. VUW Language Learning Centre.
Ellis, G. & Sinclair, B. (1989). Learning to learn English: a course in learner training. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Husni, H. (2016). The Challenges of Religious Education in Indonesia and the Future Perspectives. Religious Studies: An International Journal, 4 (2). Retrieved from
Husni, H., & Dafik, Y. (2018). Management of Islamic Higher Education in the 4.0 Industrial Revolution. Educational Review: International Journal, 15(2). Retrieved from
Husni, H., & Setiawan, I. (2018). Hermeneutics Paradigm in Religious Research. Religious Studies: An International Journal, 6(2). Retrieved from
Husni, H., & Tantowie, T. (2017). Religion, Modernism and Postmodernism: Study on Jean Baudrillard’s Philosophy. Religious Studies: An International Journal, 5(2). Retrieved from
Husni, Husni (2019). Moderate Muslims’ Views On Multicultural Education, Freedom Of Expression, And Social Media Hate Speech: An Empirical Study In West Java Indonesia. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Islam, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 199-224, Nov. 2019. ISSN 2621-8275. Available at: . doi:
Husni, Husni. (2019) Konsep Ihsân dalam Wacana Pendidikan Islam. TAJDID, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 1-12, june 2019. ISSN 2621-8259. Available at: . doi:
Lewis, M. (1999). How to Study Foreign Languages. Hampshire & London, UK: MacMillan. Part I: What is Involved in Learning a Language. Part II: Strategies for Language Acquisition.
Nation, I. S. P. (1989). Language Teaching Techniques. ELI Occasional Publications No. 2.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. New York, USA: Newbury House.
Oxford, R. (Ed.) (1996). Language learning strategies around the world: cross-cultural perspectives. Honolulu: Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center, University of Hawai’i at Manoa.
Rubin, J. & Thompson, I. (1994). How to be a More Successful Language Learner. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Willing, K. (1989). Teaching how to learn: learning strategies in ESL. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University
How to Cite
Z. T, M. G. (2020). SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES IN PARENTAL AND PEER INFLUENCE ON ADOLESCENT DRUG USE. Educational Review: International Journal, 16(2), 143-162. Retrieved from