TEACHERS' SENSE OF EFFICACY AND THEIR BELIEFS ABOUT MANAGING STUDENTS
Teachers' sense of efficacy, the belief that they can have a positive effect on student learning, appears to be related to teachers' classroom management approaches. Some of these findings have been established, however, with a definition that inappropriately combines two separate dimensions of the construct, general and personal teaching efficacy. In this study we examined the relationships between each dimension of efficacy and several measures of teachers' orientations toward management, control, and student motivation. For the 55 religious school teachers studied, the greater the teacher's sense of personal efficacy, the more humanistic the teacher's pupil control orientation. The stronger the teacher's belief that teaching can be successful, even with difficult and unmotivated students (general teaching efficacy), the more humanistic the teacher's pupil control orientation and the more the teacher supported student autonomy in solving classroom problems. Teachers who believed that students must be controlled and cannot be trusted were also more likely to believe that extrinsic rewards are necessary to motivate the students. These results are discussed in terms of possible contextual effects on the relationships between management beliefs and efficacy and the possible connections between sense of efficacy, class management, and student achievement.
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